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Math can explain why square pies taste better than round pies and environmentalism can explain why land-based salmon farms are more sustainable.
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Beer Crust Apple Pie

The Science of Pie – June 1, 2014
Best Scientific Pie
Christina Cheung, Tori Schmitt, and Elliot Cheung (Team Pretty Intense Pie Enthusiasts)

Adding alcohol to a pie crust is a fairly mainstream way of obtaining a nice flaky shelter for a delicious filling within. Vodka is the go-to spirit for crusts, but other beverages have found their way into the realm of apple pies too. One team at the 2014 Scientific Bake-Off, team P.I.E. (Pretty Intense Pie Enthusiasts), was intrigued by the plethora of alcoholic options available to them for pie crusts, and chose to use their scientific prowess to determine the best choice. Two variables guided their experiment: how do carbonation and alcohol concentration affect the flakiness of a pie crust?

Christina Chung presenting team P.I.E's experiment to the judges (Photo Credits: Patrick Tran)

Christina Chung presenting team P.I.E’s experiment to the judges (Photo Credits: Patrick Tran)

Team P.I.E. began by making six experimental crust doughs, each containing either water, beer, stale beer, diluted vodka, regular vodka, and Perrier. To measure flakiness, a quality difficult to quantify, they compared the average height for each baked pie dough to indicate how much the dough has risen during baking. To account for bubbles, height measurements were taken at the center and edges of the crust.

Elliot Cheung hard at work preparing pie (Photo Credit: Patrick Tran)

Elliot Cheung hard at work preparing pie (Photo Credit: Patrick Tran)

These pie researchers calculated the elastic modulus of each crust to further quantify flakiness. Elastic modulus of a substance is the ratio of the stress applied to the resulting strain. This ratio can be thought of as a measure of  stiffness, or in our case, flakiness, as the flakiest crust will break the most easily. 

Pie crusts that utilized both forms of beer had a higher average elastic moduli than crusts with other binding agents.

Pie crusts that utilized both forms of beer had a higher average elastic moduli than crusts with other binding agents.

Pie crusts with Perrier as a binding agent yielded the greatest average heights

Pie crusts with Perrier as a binding agent yielded the greatest average heights

They administered force to their crusts by using a pen to mimic the conditions of fork prongs stabbing a pie crust. Measured values of water balanced atop the pen acted as a weight to provide precise values of force.

Through this extensive research, P.I.E. presented data that showed that a pie crust made with Perrier sparkling water created a significantly thicker crust than one made with any of the other experimental liquids. All the other crusts surprisingly rose to very similar heights.  Since P.I.E had observed similar bubble size and bubble concentration in Perrier and beer, they expected that the regular beer crust would yield similar data to the Perrier crust. However, the significant difference between the measured values  of Perrier and beer imply a confounding factor in the experimental comparison. They speculate that Perrier’s high mineral content could alter the vaporization temperature of the liquid, and thus affect the creation of air bubbles and the dough’s infrastructure.

The dedication to detail and the scientific method paid off for these three scientists, as the panel of esteemed judges awarded them the title of “Best Scientific Pie”. As this was a scientific bake off, that is a pretty high honor to hold. Congratulations to the Pretty Intense Pie Enthusiasts, and we thank you for your deliciously scientific dessert!

Christina Cheung, Tori Schmitt, and Elliot Cheung accept their awards for Best Scientific Pie

Christina Cheung, Tori Schmitt, and Elliot Cheung accept their awards for Best Scientific Pie (Photo Credits: Patrick Tran)

Recipe
Beer Crust Apple Pie

(Makes two full pies)

For crust:

  • 5 cups flour
  • 2 TB sugar
  • 2 t salt
  • 4 sticks chilled butter
  • 1/2 to 1 cup cold beer (we used Blue Moon, but any pale ale works here)

Combine flour, sugar, and salt in a large bowl. (if making full recipe will require a very large bowl) Cut chilled butter into cubes and cut into flour mixture with a fork or pastry cutter.  The flakes can vary in texture but absolutely no butter cubes should remain intact. The mixture will resemble corse sand.  Measure out beer starting at 1/2 cup.  Pour in and incorporate into dough. If dough is still dry, incorporate more beer in until the dough is just moist enough to stick together.  Wrap dough in saran and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes, up to overnight.

For Filling and Assembly:

  • 8 large apples (we used a mixture of granny smith and pink lady)
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 6 tablespoons flour
  • salt and cinnamon to taste
  • Lemon zest (roughly 2 TB)
  • one bottle of beer or hard apple cider
  • egg white to brush the top with
  • 1/2-3/4 cup of shredded gruyere cheese

To prep the filling, core and peel all your apples and soak them in enough beer and/or hard cider to cover for 1-2 hours or until the apples are infused to taste. Pour out liquid and reserve for reduction sauce later. Be sure to remove all the liquid from the bowl and allow the apples to dry for roughly 30-45 minutes.  The apples will look significantly less “wet” after the drying period.  After the apples are dry, combine them with flour, sugar, lemon zest, cinnamon, and salt.  Depending on the sweetness of your hard cider/beer, you may need to adjust the amount of sugar used.

Assembly:

Pre-heat home oven to 500 degrees. Section pre-chilled pie dough into four equal segments and roll out two of the pie dough segments. Place these over buttered glass pie dishes and fold into place. Split filling evenly and pour into each dish. Dot top of apples if additional butter if desired (roughly 1 TB per pie).  Roll out the remaining pie crust into two top pieces.  Sprinkle each top pie with an equal amount of cheese.  Cheese amount will depend on strength and personal preference for cheese.  Flour pin well and lightly roll/ press cheese gently into the crust (dough will be very flaky).  Lay top crust evenly over pie with cheese side facing up. Crimp edges and brush with egg whites.

To bake the pie. place and oven and lower temp to 425 degrees F.  Bake at this temp for 25 minutes at which point, rotate the pie and lower temp to 375 for an additional 30-35 minutes. This will produce a pie with softer apples.   Alternatively the pie can be baked at 375 for a full hour, however the apples may remain more al dente.  (Pie was baked in the second way for competition)


Elsbeth SitesAbout the author: Elsbeth Sites is pursuing her B.S. in Biology at UCLA. Her addiction to the Food Network has developed into a love of learning about the science behind food.

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Perfectly Unsoggy Apple Pie

The Science of Pie – June 1, 2014
Honorable Mention Pie
Alexis Cary & Matthew Copperman (Team On the Road)

If you’ve baked an apple pie, you have probably encountered the dreaded problem of a soggy pie crust.

The student scientists of Team On the Road sought to solve this pie-baking mishap by determining the optimal apple slice thickness; the idea was that apple slices of varying thickness would release different  amounts of water when baked, with more water released giving rise to a soggy crust. To investigate the effect of apple slice thickness, they cooked apples of different slice geometries, and measured the “elastic modulus”, which is how much the apple pieces deform in response to a given applied mass.

Team on the Road

(A) Copperman rolls out the pie crust while Cary prepares ingredients. (B) The team presents their pie and poster at the 2014 Science of Pie event. (C) The team tested the elastic modulus of apple slices of varying thicknesses. Photos (A) and (B) courtesy of Patrick Tran. Photo (C) courtesy of Team On the Road.

The team prepared five different samples of apple slices with thicknesses: 3mm, 6mm, 9mm, 12mm, and 15mm. The apples of each thickness group were recorded for mass and elastic modulus before and after being baked for 20 minutes at 375°F.

Avg Elastic Modulus vs. Thickness of Cooked & Uncooked Apple Slices

The elastic modulus is shown as a function of slice thickness for uncooked (blue) and cooked (red) apples.

The thinnest apple slices (3mm) had the least change in elastic modulus. In fact, as the slices increased in thickness, they showed increased deformation in apple shape and texture after cooking. There is an exception for the thickest apple slice (15mm), which the team attributes to the thickest apples not being fully cooked in 20 minutes. Because the thinnest apple slices maintained their firm texture and released the least amount of water, Team On the Road used extremely thin apple slices in their final pie. Soggy pie crusts, begone! Thin apple slices are here to save the day!

Note: While the team cut their slices by hand, we recommend using a mandoline to achieve uniformly thin slices of applies.

Recipe
Perfectly Unsoggy Classic Apple Pie

For the crust:
2 1/2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour, plus extra for dusting
2 tablespoons granulated sugar
1 teaspoon table salt
4 tablespoons cold vegetable shortening, cut into 8 pieces
16 tablespoons cold unsalted butter, cut into 16 pieces
6 – 8 tablespoons ice water

For the filling:
3/4 cup granulated sugar
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon lemon zest from 1 medium lemon
1/4 teaspoon table salt
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/8 teaspoon ground allspice
1 lemon’s worth of lemon juice
2 pounds Granny Smith apples, peeled, cored, and sliced as thin as possible (approx. 1/8” is as small as this team consistently achieved.)
1 pounds Gala apples, peeled, cored, and sliced the same as the Granny Smith Apples

For assembly:
1 egg white, beaten lightly
1 tablespoon granulated sugar, for topping
Adjust oven rack to lowest position, place rimmed baking sheet on rack, and heat oven to 400 °F.

To prepare the crust:
Process flour, sugar, and salt together in food processor until combined, about 5 seconds.  Scatter shortening over top and pulse mixture for 5 times, 2 seconds each pulse.

Scatter butter over top and pulse mixture until it resembles coarse crumbs, about 10 pulses.  Transfer mixture to large bowl.

Add 3 tablespoons ice water over the mixture. Stir and press dough together. (The team used a stiff rubber spatula.)  Add 3 more tablespoons of water and mix until dough sticks together. Continue to add remaining ice water, less than 1 tablespoon at a time, as needed until the dough comes together.

Divide dough into two even pieces. Next, it is very helpful to lightly flour counter, hands, and rolling pin. Roll out dough into 12-inch diameter circles and transfer one of the circles into pie pan.  Let excess dough hang over the edge.  Press dough lightly into the bottom, corners and edges of pan.

Wrap in plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. Wrap the other pie crust dough in plastic wrap and refrigerate.   Refrigeration is important for allowing gluten strands to relax (so the dough becomes easier to roll out), and for letting letting liquids incorporate to moisturize the dough.

To prepare filling:
Mix sugar, flour, lemon zest, salt, nutmeg, cinnamon, and allspice together in large bowl.  Add lemon juice and apples and toss until combined.  Let apples sit in mixture for 5-10 minutes.

To assemble the pie:
Remove pie dough from refrigerator.

Pour apples into the dough-lined pie pan, adding about half of the liquid from the apple mixture to the pie pan. Spread apples so that they create a slight mound in the middle.

Loosely roll remaining dough round around rolling pin and gently unroll it onto filling. Trim overhang to 1/2 inch beyond lip of pie plate. Pinch edges of top and bottom crusts firmly together, pressing overhanging dough towards the pie pan until it lies flush with the pan.

Crimp dough evenly around edge of pie using your fingers. Cut a 2-inch “X” into the upper crust. Brush surface with beaten egg white and sprinkle evenly with remaining 1 tablespoon sugar.

Place pie on heated baking sheet, and bake for 30 minutes. Rotate pie and bake for an additional 30 minutes. Crust should be golden brown. If necessary cook for up to 10 minutes longer.

Let pie cool on wire rack. Serve at room temperature.


Eunice LiuAbout the author: Eunice Liu is studying Neuroscience and Linguistics at UCLA. She attributes her love of food science to an obsession with watching bread rise in the oven.

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Nicole Rucker

Nicole Rucker is a pastry chef for the Gjelina group, more specifically, Gjelina Take Away in Venice. At the beginning of her culinary career, Rucker worked in various bakeries and cafes across California, from San Francisco to San Diego. In the quest to create the perfect pie crust, Rucker came up with a recipe that helped her win the KCRW Annual Good Food Pie Contest in Los Angeles, as well as a blue ribbon in the National Pie Championship in Orlando. Fascinatingly, her award-winning apple pie utilizes dried apples and cardamom.

Pastry Chef Nicole Rucker of Gjelina Take Away- Los Angeles, CA

What hooked you on cooking?
In short – Failure. I used to watch a lot of cooking shows as a teenager, and I would try to make the recipes from the shows for my family. I grew up in a single parent household and I made a lot of the meals for myself and my siblings. I wanted to impress a young man one summer and I tried to make a cake from scratch with my best friend, it was a complete mess. So I started from that culinary failure (and the many more to come…) and worked my way to a place of understanding. This is what hooked me, the desire to understand.
The coolest example of science in your food?
The point of doneness and its many indicators. The reactions of methods and applications and ingredients. The scientific method of figuring things out – even down to what tastes good with what. Adding salt to fruit – thats a practical application of a very simple scientific reaction.
The food you find most fascinating?
Fruit and vegetables – Its magical the way nature and man cooperate (or not) to make these things edible. I’ve always been in love with apples and tomatoes and their many varieties.
What scientific concept–food related or otherwise–do you find most fascinating?
The cultivation of produce – I’m not talking about the Monsanto GMO stuff, but the kind of thing my grandpa used to do, tying one citrus plant to another citrus plant, or developing a hotter chile by grafting… this stuff I could hear about all day long.
Your best example of a food that is better because of science?
Not exactly a food but a process – fermentation. My life would be less without cheese/wine/miso/bread…
How do you think science will impact your world of food in the next 5 years?
The more people become interested in their food and food systems, the more people want to understand the world of food. This could lead us to a greater appreciation for quality, sustainability and the science of food. Not the science of creating artificial foods and flavors but the science of keeping a sustainable food system alive that can extend the availability and the appreciation of quality, healthful, interesting food to everyone. Rich or poor. Idealistic but hey…
One kitchen tool you could not live without?
My hands.
Five things most likely to be found in your fridge?
Mustard, Aged White Cheddar, kale, eggs, BUTTER.
Your all-time favorite ingredient?
Well, salt is the always favorite ingredient… but other ingredients come and go, my favorites change by the week or the season. Currently in heavy use is buckwheat flour. Talk to me in a few weeks and it will probably be lemon verbena and further into summer… elephant heart plums.
Your standard breakfast?
Eggs and bacon in any form with toast, coffee or tea.

Boozy Apple Pie

On foraging for local ingredients in your college dormitory…

Our Judge’s Favorite winner of the 2013 Science of Pie event showed how beer and vodka affect pie crust color and texture. But they weren’t the only students who experimented with alcohol in their pies. Two other teams—Team Super Rum and the Beam Team—also used alcohol to create flaky, tender crusts. The Beam Team even added Kentucky bourbon whiskey (Jim Beam, of course) to their pie filling for an extra punch of flavor.

So why all the alcohol? According to the Beam Team:

“Our group was inspired by Alex Atala’s process of going out into the Amazon Forest and finding local plants to use as ingredients. As college students, we decided that our ‘native’ ingredient is alcohol since it is easily found in abundant quantities all around us, so we used our two favorite types of hard alcohol: whiskey and vodka.”

There’s another (more scientific) reason for boozing up a pie crust: alcohol creates a more tender, flaky crust than can be easily achieved with water alone. This happens because alcohol and water have very different effects on the formation of springy gluten networks in pie dough.

Gluten develops when two wheat proteins in flour, glutenin and gliadin, are mixed with water. Because parts of these proteins do not like to interact with water, the proteins begin to stick to each other much in the same way oil droplets come together when suspended in water. As a flour-water dough is mixed, the glutenin and gliadin molecules interact to form an extensive elastic network [1].

Gluten development during dough formation. Scanning electron micrographs of gluten networks during early (A), middle (B), and late (C) stages of dough mixing [2]. The development of these gluten networks requires water.

While gluten networks are great for chewy bread dough, they are less than ideal for flaky, tender pie crust. An ideal pie dough has as just enough gluten to hold everything in the dough together. And while gluten development can be minimized by adding only scant amounts of water and handling the dough as little as possible, this is easier said than done.

A more practical solution is to replace some of the water with a liquid that does not promote gluten formation. Unlike water, alcohol inhibits gluten formation. By interacting with the gluten proteins, alcohol molecules limit their ability to stick to each other and form springy networks [1]. Using alcohol in the place of water allows more liquid to be added to the dough while still restricting gluten formation. This results in a softer, more pliable dough that becomes tender and flaky when baked.

TeamSuperRum

Team Super Rum serves their pie and presents their work at the Science of Pie even (left). Test pies made with rum pie crust (top right) or bourbon apple filling (bottom right).

Like the recipe below, the Beam Team paired a vodka pie crust with a decadent bourbon and apple filling. Although vodka is typically used for its subtle flavor, any type of alcohol will prevent gluten formation. As their name suggests, Team Super Rum used rum instead of vodka to create a flaky and uniquely flavored crust. And we bet there are many more delicious possibilities in the realm of alcohol-based pie crusts. If you try this recipe with something other than vodka, share your new pie crust concoction with us in the comments below!


Foolproof Vodka Pie Crust

Cook’s Illustrated, November 2007

2 1/2 cups (12 1/2 ounces) unbleached all-purpose flour
1 tsp table salt
2 tbsp sugar
12 tbsp (1 1/2 sticks) cold unsalted butter, cut into 1/4-inch slices
1/2 cup cold vegetable shortening, cut into 4 pieces
1/4 cup cold vodka
1/4 cup cold water

Process 1 1/2 cups flour, salt, and sugar in a food processor until combined, about 2 one-second pulses. Add butter and shortening and process until homogeneous dough just starts to collect in uneven clumps, about 15 seconds (dough will resemble cottage cheese curds and there should be no uncoated flour). Scrape bowl with rubber spatula and redistribute dough evenly around processor blade. Add remaining cup flour and pulse until mixture is evenly distributed around bowl and mass of dough has been broken up, 4 to 6 quick pulses. Empty mixture into medium bowl.

Sprinkle vodka and water over mixture. With rubber spatula, use folding motion to mix, pressing down on dough until dough is slightly tacky and sticks together. Divide dough into two even balls and flatten each into 4-inch disk. Wrap each in plastic wrap and refrigerate at least 45 minutes or up to 2 days.


Bourbon Apple Pie Filling

2 tbsp all-purpose flour
6 or 7 apples, mix of tart and sweet
1/3 cup sugar
1/2 tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp nutmeg
1/4 tsp salt
1/2 cup bourbon whiskey
2 tbsp lemon juice
2 tbsp butter cut into small pieces

Preheat oven to 425. Place bottom crust in pie plate.

Peel, core, and halve the apples. Cut into 1/4-inch thick slices, about 7 or 8 cups.

In a 4 quart saucepan, whisk together sugar, flour, cinnamon, nutmeg, and salt. Whisk in bourbon whiskey and lemon juice until evenly blended. Cook over medium heat, whisking frequently until the mixture boils and thickens slightly. Add apples and stir until evenly coated. Continue cooking, stirring continuously, for 3 minutes. Set aside to cool, stirring once or twice for 20 minutes.

Pour apple mixture into the pie shell, mounding apples slightly in the center. Dot with butter and add the top crust. Cut several steam vents into top crust.

Bake 25 minutes at 425. Reduce temperature to 350 and bake 45 minutes longer or until crust is brown and juices are bubbling.

Serve warm or chilled with whipped cream or ice cream.


Online Resources

  1. Pie crust recipe from Cook’s Illustrated via Serious Eats
  2. Bourbon apple pie filling recipe adapted from Group Recipes


References Cited

  1. Technology of breadmaking (2007). 2nd ed. New York: Springer. 397 p.
  2. Amend T (1995) The mechanism of dough forming: Efforts in the field of molecular structure. Getreide Mehl Brot 49: 359–362.

Liz Roth-JohnsonAbout the author: Liz Roth-Johnson is a Ph.D. candidate in Molecular Biology at UCLA. If she’s not in the lab, you can usually find her experimenting in the kitchen.

Read more by Liz Roth-Johnson


Apple Pie with Vodka Crust

The Science of Pie – May 19, 2013
Judge’s Favorite Pie
Qiaoyi Wu, Qinqin Chen, Michelle Cheng (Team Aπ3)

Seeking to perfect pie crust texture, team Aπ3 experimented with different liquids that may impede the formation of gluten protein networks. Gluten gives structure and stability to pie dough, but can also make pie dough dense and tough when over-developed. The team examined the porousness, density, and browning of pie crusts prepared with their three different liquids compared to water and concluded that vodka creates the flakiest pie crust.

TeamApi3

photos courtesy of Patrick Tran

Different liquids affect the density of pie crust. (A) Pie crust prepared with alcohol (beer or vodka) is less dense than pie crust prepared with water. Interestingly, carbonated water also lowers the density of the pie crust compared to water. (B-E) Team Aπ3 did not observe much difference in the browning of pie crusts prepared with water (B), carbonated water (C), beer (D), or vodka (E).

The Recipe
Apple pie with vodka crust

For the crust:
1 1/4 cups all purpose flour
1/2 tbsp sugar
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 cup (1 stick) chilled unsalted butter, cut into 1-inch pieces
2 tbsp (approx.) ice water
2 tbsp (approx.) vodka

For the filling:
1/4 cup sugar
2 tbsp all purpose flour
1/4 tsp cinnamon
1 3/4 pounds apples, peeled, quartered, cored, thinly sliced*
*Team Aπ3 used a half Fuji and half Granny Smith apples.

For the streusel topping:
1/2 cup all purpose flour
1/2 cup firmly packed light brown sugar
1/4 tsp ground cinnamon
5 tbsp (2.5 oz) unsalted butter, chilled

Preheat oven to 375F.

To prepare the crust, mix the dry ingredients. Cut in the cubes of butter until the butter forms approximately pea-sized pieces. Add water and vodka one tablespoon at a time, alternating the liquids. Only add liquid until the dough starts to come together and can be formed into a ball. Chill dough for at least 30 min. Roll out the dough and press into a pie pan to form the bottom crust.

To prepare the filling, mix all filling ingredients. Spread the filling mixture on top of the bottom crust. Try to arrange the filling so that the top of the pie is flat.

To prepare the streusel topping, combine the flour, brown sugar, and cinnamon. Cut the butter into small pieces and incorporate into the dry ingredients until the butter is in very small pieces. Spread the streusel topping over the pie filling.

Bake pie at 375F for 45-50 min.

Recipe adapted from Eat Me, Delicious: Apple Pie with Brown Sugar Streusel Topping

The Science of Pie: 2013 Event Recap

On Sunday we held our third and final 2013 Science and Food public lecture: The Science of Pie. Renowned pastry chef Christina Tosi joined us all the way from New York to explain her process for creating new desserts, and Los Angeles native and super-star baker Zoe Nathan shared her tips for baking the perfect apple pie. Guests indulged in delicious goodies from Zoe Nathan’s Huckleberry Café, Compost Cookies from Momofuku Milk Bar, and espresso brewed by four talented baristas.

IMG_0232

Zoe Nathan and Christina Tosi answer questions from the audience after their lectures.

And, of course, there was pie.

For weeks, students from the UCLA Science and Food course have been studying the apple pie and using scientific inquiry and experimentation to try to create the “ultimate” apple pie experience. Students examined everything from how different apple varieties behave in pie filling to how the size and shape of the pie affects baking. Several students also played with unconventional ingredients, including avocado oil, yogurt, chia seeds, and whiskey.

ScienceOfPieCooking

Students prepare their apple pies the morning of the event.

IMG_3444

Students share their research projects and apple pies with the public.

The students presented their research projects and pies at Sunday’s event. While the public enjoyed sampling the scientific treats, the pies were scrutinized by an esteemed panel of judges made up of chefs (Christina Tosi and Zoe Nathan), food critics (Evan Kleiman and Jonathan Gold), and scientists (UCLA Professors Andrea Kasko and Sally Krasne). After tasting the pies a talking with the students, the public voted for their favorite pie and the judges settled on three additional stand-outs. The lucky winners all took home wonderful prizes from our friends at Breville.

Best Overall Pie
Alia Welsh (Team Sablé)
Apple pie with shortbread crust and streusel topping.
This solo effort explored the vast parameter space of pie, studying the effect of fat content and temperature on the texture of the shortbread crust, as well as the effect of pH on the browning of the streusel topping. The final winning pie had shortbread made with room temperature standard American butter.

Best Tasting Pie
Stephan Phan, Kevin Yang, Amirari Diego (Team Apples to Apples)
Deconstructed apple pie with pie crust crumbs and spherified apples.
Using the technique of spherification, this team applied their knowledge of diffusion and gelation to prepare “reconstituted” apples. They found that optimizing both the calcium chloride concentration and gelation time was key to making a delicious modernist apple pie.

Judge’s Favorite Pie
Qiaoyi Wu, Qinqin Chen, Michelle Cheng (Team Aπ3)
Pie crust made with different liquids, including vodka, beer, and sparkling water.
Seeking to perfect pie crust texture, team Aπ3 experimented with different liquids that may impede the formation of gluten protein networks. Gluten gives structure and stability to pie dough, but can also make pie dough dense and tough when over-developed. The team examined the porousness, density, and browning of pie crusts prepared with three different liquids compared to water and concluded that vodka creates the flakiest pie crust.

People’s Choice Award
Elan Kramer, Caleb Turner (Team “Insert Team Name Here”)
Frozen apple pie with peanut butter mousse.
This student duo thought outside the box with this creative apple and peanut butter pie. To create the ultimate peanut butter experience, the team experimented with the effect of egg white content on the texture and density of the peanut butter mousse.

The Science of Pie was the perfect end to a fantastic lecture series. We are so grateful to our amazing lecturers and all the people and sponsors who made the lectures possible. And although the 2014 lectures might seem impossibly far away, don’t worry—the Science & Food blog is not going anywhere! Keep an eye on out for more exciting food science posts, profiles, recipes, and maybe even a few videos through the rest of the year.


Liz Roth-JohnsonAbout the author: Liz Roth-Johnson is a Ph.D. candidate in Molecular Biology at UCLA. If she’s not in the lab, you can usually find her experimenting in the kitchen.

Read more by Liz Roth-Johnson